Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels - Elang Online

What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level, Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels, Which Diabetes Is Genetic , Blood Sugar Levels.

This cannula allows for frequent sampling of blood glucose levels Attached to it is a transmitter that sends the information to a pager like device This device has a visual display screen that enables the wearer to see, What Is The Normal Blood Sugar Level not solely the current glucose reading, but in addition the graphic trends In some units, the speed of change of blood sugar can be proven Certain models will alarm if the speed Blood Sugar Levels of change signifies the wearer is at risk for dropping or rising blood glucose too quickly One model is particularly designed to interface with their insulin pumps.

Excessive glucose allows organisms to grow uncontrolled The Expert Committee notes that most cases of diabetes fall into two broad classes, that are known as Type 1 and Type 2 There are additionally other specific types, corresponding to gestational diabetes Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels and impaired glucose homeostasis.

Once enough alcohol has been eradicated, your liver will regain the flexibility to launch sugar It can occur during a date, throughout a business meeting, or even while driving, which is the most dangerous state of affairs .

Recommended Target Ranges

if there could be confusion or loss of consciousness while behind the wheel It s necessary to use your blood glucose meter to examine your blood sugar earlier than you drive Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels to maintain your self and others Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels protected.

A blood pattern for a random plasma glucose test may be taken at any time This doesn t require as a lot planning and is therefore used in the analysis of kind 1 diabetes when time Blood Sugar Levels is of the essence Type 1 Diabetes Quiz What are the causes of kind 1 diabetes Take this quiz and challenge your knowledge of causes, signs, analysis and treatments for this common situation, previously generally recognized as juvenile Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels diabetes Mantra Care aims at providing inexpensive, accessible, and professional health care remedy to people throughout the globe Skipping or delaying meals lack of food, either skipping or delaying meals, can cause the insulin levels to drop too low after a while.

Infants with NDM don t produce enough insulin, Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels and the situation is often mistaken for type 1 diabetes They are usually born undersize and develop much less quickly than their peers with out NDM For about half of infants with NDM, Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels the condition is permanent for the other half, it disappears however can reappear later The genetic take a look at is just going to reveal an affiliation or a likelihood that someone may get sort 1 or type 2 diabetes, as a result of the disease isn t only caused by genetic variation But people Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels who are Black, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander are at a better risk for kind 2 diabetes even when they aren t chubby According to the NIDDK, Lower Blood Sugar being overweight or overweight is a strong danger factor for sort 2 diabetes.

It must be mentioned right here that there are a variety of conditions in which an A1c worth may not be correct For example, with significant anemia, the purple blood cell depend is low, and thus the A1c is altered This may be the case in sickle cell disease and different hemoglobinopathies Frequent infections usually tend to occur in folks with untreated or poorly controlled diabetes Nausea and vomiting also can happen in patients with untreated diabetes Some untreated diabetes patients also complain of fatigue.

The patient with diabetes is at increased danger for cardiovascular disease, renal failure, neuropathies, and diabetic retinopathy Research research such because the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial have indicated that tight control of blood glucose levels resulted within the delay or prevention of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy Blood glucose levels at 1 hr after beginning a meal are thought of one of the best predictor for subsequent fetal macrosomia Target blood glucose ranges are ninety mg dL or much less and a hundred and twenty to a hundred and forty mg dL postprandially The affected person and her companion must Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels be instructed that meals, stress, inactivity, and hormones elevate blood glucose levels and that train and Blood Sugar Levels insulin lower them Women who What Is Normal Blood Sugar haven t any medical or obstetrical contraindicting factors should be encouraged to participate in an accredited train program, as Blood Sugar Levels a end result of bodily activity will increase insulin receptor sensitivity.

Add notes about something which may have made the studying out of your target range, such as food, Blood Sugar Levels Normal Can stress make blood sugar high Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels exercise, and so forth Squeezing from the base of the finger, gently place a small quantity of blood onto the check strip Please share this text to assist as many sufferers as you ll be able to If the result s between 56 mmol L to 7zero mmol L, the affected person is considered prediabetic Blood sugar is claimed to be excessive whether it is over 130 mg dL before a meal of a hundred and eighty mg dL within two hours of a meal.

Do you might have hassle reducing weight, irrespective of how onerous you attempt to shed these unwanted pounds Find out more concerning Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels the weight reduction plateau and what you can do about it From acupuncture to chiropractic therapies and homeopathy to holistic healing, complementary and Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar alternative medication is growing in recognition Read on to be taught more about Ayurveda, a healing system that originated in India 1000 s of years in the past Did you understand that menopause can affect your metabolic health, and vice versa Read on to know the relationship between metabolic well being and menopause, and tips on how to manage Does high blood sugar make you feel nauseous metabolic well being during your menopausal journey.

Doctors may use the A1C alone or in combination with different diabetes exams to make Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels a prognosis They also use the A1C to see how properly you may be managing your diabetes This test is totally different from the blood sugar checks that folks with diabetes do for themselves daily.

Diabetes can occur temporarily throughout being pregnant, and reports counsel that it occurs in 2 to 10 of all pregnancies Significant hormonal changes during being pregnant can result in blood sugar elevation in genetically predisposed individuals Blood sugar elevation throughout being pregnant is known as gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes often resolves once the baby is born.

Continuous glucose monitoring is expensive and will or may not be lined by your well being plan The greatest approach to know your blood glucose level is to examine it with a glucose meter This means doing a fingerstick with a lancet and getting a drop of blood onto a take a look at strip, then inserting the strip into the meter for a reading Your doctor might find a way to offer you a meter free of charge, but you ll doubtless must pay for check strips and lancets But check along with your well being plan, as there are probably one or two preferred meters that they want you to make use of.

African Americans with Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels diabetes might have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, however then their subsequent clinical course is typical What is the normal blood sugar for seniors of kind 2 diabetes In Type 2 diabetes, the body doesn t make or use insulin nicely It happens Blood Sugar Level most often in middle aged and older adults, but it can additionally have an effect on kids Your probability of getting type 2 diabetes is larger if you are obese, inactive, or have a household history of diabetes Women with a history of gestational diabetes even have a larger probability of creating sort 2 diabetes later in life Diabetes is a severe illness, and it affects many older adults.

Soon after diagnosis, you may additionally likely meet with a diabetes educator and a dietitian to get more information on managing your diabetes Regular exercise might help forestall prediabetes and sort 2 diabetes, and it could possibly help those that already have diabetes to maintain up higher blood sugar management A minimum of 30 minutes of reasonable train corresponding to brisk walking most days of the week is recommended Aim for at least a hundred and fifty minutes of moderate cardio exercise every week Following your diabetes therapy plan takes round Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels the clock dedication Careful management of diabetes can cut back your risk of serious even life threatening complications.

And it does in numbers that are dramatically growing Today, greater than 34 million Americans have been identified with diabetes The prevalence of diabetes has been steadily increasing for the previous three a long time, mirroring a rise within the prevalence of obesity and overweight people In explicit, the prevalence of Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels diabetes is rising most quickly in low and middle income countries.

Regular insulin is fast acting and starts to work within Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels minutes, with its peak glucose lowering impact about two hours after it s injected NPH and Lente insulin are intermediate Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels acting, beginning to work within one to a few hours and lasting up to hours Ultra lente is a long acting type of insulin that begins to work inside 4 to eight hours and lasts hours A decreased efficacy of oral antidiabetic medication has been reported in African American subjects.

In T2DM, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome is an emergent concern It presents similarly to Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels DKA with excessive thirst, elevated blood glucose, dry mouth, polyuria, tachypnea, and tachycardia However, unlike DKA, HHS typically does not present with Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels excessive urinary ketones since insulin nonetheless gets produced by pancreatic beta cells Treatment for DKA or HHS entails insulin administration and aggressive intravenous hydration Careful administration of electrolytes, particularly potassium, is crucial within the administration of those emergent circumstances Fasting glucose ranges and HbA1c testing are useful for the early identification of T2DM.

This take a look at is often done in the morning, after an 8 hour fast The blood check includes inserting a small needle right into a vein in your arm to withdraw blood If your blood sugar stage is 126 milligrams per deciliter mg dL or higher, your physician will in all probability wish to repeat the check.

She has multiple well being, safety and lifesaving certifications from Oklahoma State University Alina s aim in life is to attempt as many experiences as potential To date, she has been a volunteer firefighter, a dispatcher, substitute teacher, artist, janitor, children s guide creator, pizza maker, occasion coordinator and far more To diagnose diabetes, we do an oral glucose tolerance check with fasting, Myers stated.

Be careful with dried fruits as a end result of they re concentrated In this state, ketones may actually make your blood sugar stage go even Blood sugar change that starts with d larger and you could want intravenous fluids to rebalance Inhalable insulin is a powdered type of rapid acting insulin that may be delivered to the lungs with an inhaler Clinical trials have shown that though it isn t superior to injectable insulin, it does provide comparable advantages in lowering blood sugar While taking rapid acting insulin is the quickest way to lower your blood sugar, there are different ways like exercising and staying hydrated that may assist In circumstances of an emergency, contact your healthcare supplier immediately.

This results in elevated urine glucose, which in turn results in extreme loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine Lack of insulin also causes the lack to retailer fats and protein along with breakdown of present fats and protein stores This dysregulation, leads to the method of ketosis and the discharge of ketones into the blood Ketones flip the blood acidic, a situation referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis embrace nausea, vomiting, and abdominal ache.

These check results can fairly aptly take a look at you for diabetes Below mentioned are the conventional blood sugar levels of fasting, before a meal, after food intake, and at bedtime in an age wise category Blood sugar or glucose is launched after consumption and breakdown of carbohydrates throughout food consumption It is the main sugar that is present in your bloodstream and its regulation What is a good sugar level in your blood is undertaken by pancreatic secretions Normal blood sugar levels chart for many adults ranges from eighty to 99 mg of sugar per deciliter before a meal and 80 to one hundred forty mg per deciliter after meals.

If you may have an urgent problem, all the time contact your health care provider or a neighborhood emergency room for advice Follow your physician s recommendations about how often you take a look at your glucose You may have to test yourself a quantity of occasions each day to determine changes in your food plan or therapy If left untreated hyperglycemia might trigger the client to enter a state of ketoacidosis where the physique begins to course of fat to provide the vitality required for cellular perform This could probably be on account of an absence of insulin produced by the pancreas High blood sugar can come about for numerous reasons.

Often clients don t recognize the onset of symptoms of hypoglycemia which may put them at excessive risk of injury either whereas undertaking common Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels exercise or whereas asleep Causes of hypoglycemia embody taking an excessive quantity of insulin, and or not enough carbohydrates or inappropriate exercise in relation to food regimen and or insulin intake There are various kinds of diabetes type 1, sort 2 and gestational diabetes If you ve diabetes type 1, kind 2 or gestational your physique both doesn t make sufficient insulin, can t use the insulin properly, or both.

Persons older than 40 years of age must be screened yearly More frequent screening is beneficial for individuals with additional danger elements for diabetes Patients with diabetes mellitus mostly present with increased thirst, increased urination, lack of Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels energy and fatigue, bacterial and fungal infections, and delayed wound healing.

A fasting blood sugar stage of lower than 100 mg dL is considered regular in folks without diabetes, based on the American Diabetes Association Compare your meter Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar with a blood glucose check carried out in a laboratory Take your meter with you to your subsequent appointment together with your health care provider Ask Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels your provider to look at your testing approach to make positive you are using the meter correctly Ask your health care supplier to have your blood examined with a laboratory technique.

If your blood sugar is over 400 , search medical attention instantly, according to the Mayo Clinic Blood sugar over 400 mg dL could mean you are vulnerable to the possibly fatal diabetic ketoacidosis If you re not capable of verify until two hours quite than one hour after a meal, you should goal for below 64mmol l.

After time, if production decreases and insulin can t be launched as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops There is no definite way to know when you have diabetes without present process blood exams to determine your blood glucose levels Many extra individuals have blood sugar ranges above the traditional range, but not excessive sufficient to be identified as having diabetes During being pregnant, some girls have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable to provide enough insulin to soak up it all Both the affected person and family are taught to determine signs of dehydration and to report signs of severe dehydration and impending hypovolemia.

But you may be wondering tips on how to know if it s something you must get checked out There could be two primary issues with your blood sugar either it s persistently too excessive or too low Even if you don t have diabetes, there are some signs that your What Is A Normal Blood Sugar blood sugar ranges are not functioning normally If you have diabetes, you in all probability already keep a watchful eye in your blood sugar by way of using a continuous glucose monitor or a blood sugar meter.

Pilates is a well known workout schedule that s intended to additional develop centre power, coordination, and equilibrium Lifestyle change and correct treatment have Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels confirmed to be basic in the recovery process for hyperglycemia Sign up at no cost, and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips and current well being subjects, like COVID 19, plus expertise on managing health.

DM that begins during being pregnant owing to modifications in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance The disease is marked by alternating episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia Frequent adjustments of dietary consumption and insulin dosage are required.

Type 1 diabetes is normally spotted shortly, Normal Blood Sugar since signs can seem abruptly Most folks with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed earlier than the age of 19 Diabetes is a continual illness whose signs can be ameliorated and life prolonged by proper therapy.

An insulin pump, attached to the pocket, is a tool that is worn outside of the body with a tube that connects the reservoir of insulin to a catheter inserted beneath the skin of the abdomen Insulin pumps are programmed to deliver specific quantities of insulin mechanically and whenever you eat If you manage kind 2 diabetes with noninsulin medications or Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels with diet and exercise alone, you might not need to check your blood sugar every day Diabetes Diabetes is .

Keep Track The Blood Sugar Levels

a persistent condition characterized by high levels of sugar within the blood.

Diabetes is a problem with your physique that causes blood sugar ranges to rise greater than normal Find out what occurs when your blood sugar ranges are too excessive, in addition to potential outcomes after they Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels rise above four hundred milligrams per deciliter mg dL There are many alternative symptoms of a hypo, so Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels it s important that you are aware of the signs in case your blood sugar degree will get too low We ve also got more details about what to do if you arehaving a hypo If you re What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level younger, have had diabetes for a shorter amount of time or usually are not taking any medication on your diabetes, your glucose targets .

Qu Tan Frecuente Es La Diabetes

may be slightly tighter, or lower Likewise, your blood glucose targets may be larger than what ADA recommends if you re older, have diabetes problems, or don t get symptoms when your blood glucose is low.

The extent of this is measurable through Normal Blood Sugar Level the glycation hemoglobin test Glycation results in injury in small blood vessels within the retina, kidney, and peripheral nerves This harm leads to the classic diabetic issues of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy and the preventable outcomes of blindness, dialysis, and amputation, respectively Gestational diabetes is a temporary form of diabetes that happens during pregnancy Between three and 20 per cent of pregnant ladies develop gestational diabetes, relying on their risk elements A diagnosis of gestational diabetes might enhance the danger of creating diabetes later in life for both mom and baby.

Oysters even have excessive levels of zinc, which helps process the sugar in your bloodstream The zinc and protein in oysters management fasting blood sugars, post meal blood sugars, and hemoglobin A1C levels Probiotics are robust little intestine micro organism that help with defending your pancreas.

While Blood Sugar Level insulin resistance is a part of T2DM, the full extent of the disease outcomes when the affected person has inadequate production of insulin to compensate for his or her insulin resistance T2DM entails a more insidious onset where an imbalance between insulin levels and insulin sensitivity causes a useful deficit of insulin Insulin resistance is multifactorial however commonly develops from weight problems and aging Review the remedy issues and common problems of diabetes mellitus But with diabetes, several major issues can go incorrect to cause diabetes.

However, simply maintaining a wholesome diet and exercising frequently might help to an excellent extent High fiber meals, green vegetables, low GI fruits are all good meals choices for people with diabetes And workouts like Zumba, yoga, or just walking for half hour daily could be very helpful for bringing the blood sugar level back to normal.

Take care of minor cuts and bruises to stop infections Urine and blood exams will show if your kidneys are okay Finding and treating eye problems early could keep your eyes healthy You ought to take drugs as prescribed even if you feel good.

On the flipside, hyperglycemia happens when your blood sugar is just too excessive, and can happen to nondiabetics Symptoms embody frequent urination, elevated thirst and headache If you suppose you re hyperglycemic and can t keep fluids or food down, call for emergency medical help An impaired glucose tolerance check involves taking a concentrated amount of glucose after which measuring blood sugar levels after two hours Click on the picture below to view a larger blood sugar levels chart There could also be instances when you ve bother reaching your blood sugar targets.

Whereas those with diabetes and an insulin resistance cannot achieve Normal blood sugar in babies back the identical power from meals because of the glucose not being able to be damaged down correctly into energy Your Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels yearly doctor s appointment is an excellent time to verify Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels in in your blood glucose levels This is very true if your age , weight, or family historical past put you at larger risk for creating diabetes in general.

A colloquial term for hybrid diabetes, also referred to as kind three diabetes or sort 1 and a half diabetes Oral antidiabetic agents, together with details about drug drug interactions, proper administration, and potential side effects This first occurs because the nitrogen part of protein is discarded within the blood when the physique metabolizes its own proteins to acquire the glucose it needs Blood samples are collected at fasting for 1 hour and 2 hours.

Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can even seem in adults Other symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, issue respiration, an altered psychological state and a fruity odor on the breath You and your healthcare team can then look back over your outcomes to see if you have to modify your treatment.

Accuracy is doubtless considered one of the most necessary components whereas selecting a CGM CGMs are often not correct and may trigger severe issues due to the mistaken blood sugar degree studying Most CGMs claim to be correct, which is not always the case.

Diabetes is a significant reason for blindness, kidney failure, coronary heart assaults, stroke and decrease limb amputation The variety of individuals with diabetes rose from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 Prevalence has been rising extra quickly in low and middle income international locations than in high Normal Blood Sugar Level income international locations Untreated gestational diabetes may end Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels up in a baby s death both earlier than or shortly after delivery Extra glucose can cross the placenta, which triggers your baby s pancreas to make extra insulin.

Regular ophthalmological examinations are beneficial for early detection of diabetic retinopathy The patient is educated about diabetes, its possible problems and their management, and the importance of adherence to the prescribed remedy The patient is taught the significance of maintaining normal blood pressure ranges 120 80 mm Hg or lower Control of even mild to moderate hypertension results in fewer diabetic issues, esp nephropathy, cerebrovascular illness, and cardiovascular disease Limiting alcohol consumption to roughly one drink day by day and avoiding tobacco are additionally important for self Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels management Emotional support and a sensible assessment of the patient s condition are offered this assessment ought to stress that, with proper treatment, the patient can have a near normal life style and life expectancy.

Simplified, customizable navigation of aggregated information from analysis supported by the NIH and different establishments facilitates new understanding of diabetes by growing users capability to share and consider content material The National Institutes of Health , 10 biopharmaceutical companies, and multiple non profit organizations launched an unprecedented new public private partnership in February 2014 What makes this public private partnership distinctive is that AMP knowledge will be considered precompetitive and made publicly accessible to the .

How To Bring Blood Sugar Up

broad biomedical group Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels Foods to stabilize blood sugar for additional analysis.

In addition, prediabetes is another necessary diagnosis that indicates an elevated risk of creating diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a gaggle of physiological dysfunctions characterised by Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels hyperglycemia resulting immediately from insulin resistance, insufficient insulin secretion, or excessive glucagon secretion Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune dysfunction leading to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells Type 2 diabetes , which is much more frequent, is primarily a problem of progressively impaired glucose regulation because Blood sugar minimum level of a combination of dysfunctional pancreatic beta cells and insulin resistance The function of this text is to review the basic science of sort 2 diabetes and its problems, and to debate the latest therapy tips The overarching goal of those efforts is to discover out the genetic underpinnings of this illness and translate that data into clinical and therapeutic interventions.

There are different sorts of diabetes, each with totally different causes, but all of them share the common downside of having too much glucose in your bloodstream Some types of diabetes can be prevented by adopting a wholesome way of life Weight loss can help control kind 2 diabetes so that you are more healthy Quitting smoking can even assist you to control your blood sugar ranges Being a healthy weight and never smoking might help all women be healthier Type 2 diabetes was additionally beforehand referred to as non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus , or adult onset diabetes mellitus.

We strive to reply to your medical queries in an organized and timely method We also understand how necessary rising evidence is to creating knowledgeable selections to offer sufferers with high quality care BD has leveraged deep expertise and superior technologies to constantly innovate our pen needles, insulin syringes and different products Our merchandise are diligently designed to enable people who find themselves residing with diabetes to benefit from snug, effective diabetes care Insulin could additionally be given to maintain What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level the mom s blood sugar in a Blood sugar high cant stay awake traditional range to prevent the infant s blood sugar from dropping excessively after supply In addition, women with identified GDM must Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels be screened for persistent diabetes 6 to 12 weeks postpartum.

When you don t get enough shut eye, your cravings and need to eat now can go into overdrive That s as a end result of leptin reduces and ghrelin will increase , signaling to your mind that you must eat that blueberry crumb muffin possibly even two of them before you feel satisfied I recommend Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels to develop your web site to be linked with the new diabetic s Instruments as I hope the testing Unites shall be produced which does Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels not need to prick fingers for the Blood testing This is inspite of the reality that she isn t given any drugs after lunch and no food after 10pm.

Oral glucose tolerance Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels check taken after fasting in a single day after which once more two hours after having a sugary drink The CGM system includes a quarter sized sensor worn on the upper arm that eliminates the wants for finger sticks, transmits glucose information each minute, When Charlie O Connell was a school athlete, he lacked assets to effectively handle type Can Drinking Too Much Water Raise Blood Sugar Levels 1 diabetes whereas staying active The end result ishyperglycemia, when the extent of glucose within the blood is too excessive, according to the American Diabetes Association Normal Blood Sugar Level The healthiest fats are unsaturated fat, which come from fish and plant sources corresponding to olive oil, nuts, and avocados Omega 3 fatty acids struggle irritation and assist brain and coronary heart health.

User Reviews

Reply

Your email address will not be published

8 + seven =